disease: Methylmalonic aciduria cblA type

nameMethylmalonic aciduria cblA type
descriptionIsolated methylmalonic acidemia/aciduria, the topic of this GeneReview, is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Onset of the manifestations of isolated methylmalonic acidemia/aciduria ranges from the neonatal period to adulthood. All phenotypes are characterized by periods of relative health and intermittent metabolic decompensation, usually associated with intercurrent infections and stress. In the neonatal period the disease can present with lethargy, vomiting, hypotonia, hypothermia, respiratory distress, severe ketoacidosis, hyperammonemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia and can result in death within the first four weeks of life. In the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype, infants are normal at birth, but develop lethargy, vomiting, dehydration, failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, hypotonia, and encephalopathy within a few weeks to months of age. An intermediate B12-responsive phenotype can occasionally be observed in neonates, but is usually observed in the first months or years of life; affected children exhibit anorexia, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay, and sometimes have protein aversion and/or vomiting and lethargy after protein intake. Atypical and "benign"/adult methylmalonic acidemia phenotypes are associated with increased, albeit mild, urinary excretion of methylmalonate. Major secondary complications of methylmalonic acidemia include: intellectual impairment (variable); tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive renal failure; "metabolic stroke" (acute and chronic basal ganglia injury) causing a disabling movement disorder with choreoathetosis, dystonia, and para/quadriparesis; pancreatitis; growth failure; functional immune impairment; and optic nerve atrophy.
variant-disease NM_172250.3(MMAA):c.593_596del (p.Thr198fs) AND Methylmalonic aciduria cblA type
NM_172250.3(MMAA):c.562G>C (p.Gly188Arg) AND Methylmalonic aciduria cblA type
NM_172250.3(MMAA):c.64C>T (p.Arg22Ter) AND Methylmalonic aciduria cblA type
NM_172250.3(MMAA):c.433C>T (p.Arg145Ter) AND Methylmalonic aciduria cblA type
NM_172250.3(MMAA):c.295G>A (p.Ala99Thr) AND Methylmalonic aciduria cblA type
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